This module replicates the process that professional astronomers go through in executing observational research projects. Some background will be given on how to write an observing proposal, which must contain a scientific and technical justification (this is a foundational process for astronomy research). Signal-to-noise calculations, needed to show feasibility, will be covered in detail. This will include how to model the expected brightness of a given source, and how to take into account sky conditions (e.g., seeing, sky brightness), and the efficiencies of various instrumental components (e.g., CCD quantum efficiency, filter passbands, losses due to reflections etc.). Students will participate in an exercise that mimics the peer review process undertaken by telescope time allocation committees, by reading and discussing each other’s observing proposal and ranking them according to scientific merit and feasibility. Students will then form small teams, and a subset of the projects will be carried out using a small telescope. Students will independently analyse the data obtained and write a scientific report describing their observations and results.